For extra on particular techniques not handled below, see hieroglyphic writing and pictography. Extra recently there have been attempts to invent varieties for communicating explicit messages with out assuming a information of any particular language. Students comparable to Milman Parry, Marshall McLuhan, Eric Havelock, Jack Goody, and Walter Ong were among the first to research the conceptual and social implications of utilizing written versus oral forms of communication. Students account for these info by suggesting that writing is related on to language however not essentially directly to speech. It is the truth that writing is an expression of language somewhat than simply a means of transcribing speech that provides to writing, and hence to written language and to literacy, its particular properties. Certainly, the historical past of writing is in part a matter of the discovery and representation of these structural ranges of spoken language within the try and construct an environment friendly, basic, and economical writing system capable of serving a variety of socially helpful features.